(Graves' Disease; Overactive Thyroid)
|The Thyroid Gland|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Graves' disease—problem with the immune system
- Toxic uninodular goiter—a single area/nodule in the thyroid gland is overactive
- Toxic multinodular goiter—multiple nodules in the thyroid gland which overproduce thyroid hormone
- Thyroiditis—inflammation of the thyroid that may later lead to hypothyroidism
- Taking too much thyroid hormone—very rarely from meat sources contaminated by animal thyroid glands
- Pregnancy: postpartum thyroiditis (hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism)
- Family history of Graves' disease
- Certain viral infections
- Unexplained weight loss despite an increased appetite
- Heart palpitations
- Increased number of bowel movements/diarrhea
- Changes in libido
- Muscle weakness and wasting, especially in the elderly
- Heat intolerance
- Enlarged thyroid gland ( goiter )
- Increased sweating
- Lumpy, red thickening of the skin in front of the shins
- Shortness of breath
- Irregular or no menstrual periods
- Heart failure or atrial fibrillation , especially in the elderly
- Enlarged thyroid gland, also known as a goiter
- Rapid pulse rate
- Warm, moist skin
- Enlarged red prominent eyes (opthalmopathy)
- Prominent reflexes
- Muscle weakness (arms and legs)
- Rash on front of shins
- Blood tests —to measure level of thyroid hormones and look for thyroid antibodies
- Radioactive iodine uptake test—measures how active thyroid is in taking up the iodine
- Eye protection before sleep
- Artificial tears
The American Thyroid Association http://www.thyroid.org/
National Graves' Disease Foundation http://www.ngdf.org/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/
Thyroid Foundation of Canada http://www.thyroid.ca/
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocrine Practice . 2002;8:457-469.
Hyperthyroidism. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated December 14, 2012. Accessed December 31, 2012.
Medical Guidelines for Treatment of Hypo/Hyperthyroidism. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists website. Available at: https://www.aace.com/files/hypo-hyper.pdf . Accessed December 31, 2012.
Shomon M. Frequently asked questions on Graves' disease & hyperthyroidism. Thyroid-Info website. Available at: http://www.thyroid-info.com/articles/hyperthyroidism-faq.htm . Accessed December 31, 2012.
Van Geest RJ, Sa sim IV, Koppeschaar HP, et al. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy for patients with moderately severe Graves' orbitopathy: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Endocrinol . 2008;148:229-237.
1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Nyirenda MJ, Taylor PN, Stoddart M, Beckett GJ, Toft AD. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-receptor antibody and thyroid hormone concentrations in smokers vs nonsmokers with Graves disease treated with carbimazole. JAMA . 2009;301:162-164.
7/6/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Safety: propylthiouracil. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm164162.htm . Published June 4, 2009. Accessed July 7, 2009.
- Reviewer: Kim Carmichael, MD
- Review Date: 11/2012 -
- Update Date: 11/26/2012 -