1 White AC, Thannickal VJ, Fanburg BL. Glutathione deficiency in human disease. J Nutr Biochem . 1994;5:218–26.
2 Witschi A, Reddy S, Stofer B, Lauterburg BH. The systemic availability of oral glutathione. Eur J Clin Pharmacol . 1992;43:667–9.
3 Hunjan MK, Evered DF. Absorption of glutathione from the gastro-intestinal tract. Biochim Biophys Acta . 1985;815:184–8.
4 Bounous G. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glutathione modulation in cancer treatment. Anticancer Res . 2000;20:4785-92.
5 Bounous G, Gervais F, Amer V, Batist G, Gold P. The influence of dietary whey protein on tissue glutathione and the diseases of aging. Clin Invest Med . 1989;12:343–9.
6 Micke P, Beeh KM, Schlaak JF, Buhl R. Oral supplementation with whey proteins increases plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients. Eur J Clin Invest . 2001;31:171–8.
7 Watanabe A, Okada K, Shimizu Y, et al. Nutritional therapy of chronic hepatitis by whey protein (non-heated). J Med . 2000;31:283–302.
8 Henning SM, Zhang JZ, McKee RW, Swendseid ME, Jacob RA. Glutathione blood levels and other oxidant defense indices in men fed diets low in vitamin C. J Nutr . 1991;121:1969–75.
9 Johnston CS, Meyer CG, Srilakshmi JC. Vitamin C elevates red blood cell glutathione in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr . 1993;58:103–5.
10 Arivazhagan P, Ramanathan K, Panneerselvam C. Effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on glutathione metabolic enzymes in aged rats. Exp Gerontol . 2001;37:81–7.
11 Bunin AIa, Filina AA, Erchev VP. A glutathione deficiency in open-angle glaucoma and the approaches to its correction. Vestn Oftalmol . 1992;108:13–5.
12 Han D, Handelman G, Marcocci L, et al. Lipoic acid increases de novo synthesis of cellular glutathione by improving cystine utilization. Biofactors . 1997;6:321–38.
13 Hultberg B, Andersson A, Isaksson A. Lipoic acid increases glutathione production and enhances the effect of mercury in human cell lines. Toxicology . 2002;175:103–10.
14 Packer L, Kraemer K, Rimbach G. Molecular aspects of lipoic acid in the prevention of diabetes complications. Nutrition . 2001;17:888–95.
15 Sen CK, Roy S, Han D, Packer L. Regulation of cellular thiols in human lymphocytes by alpha-lipoic acid: a flow cytometric analysis. Free Radic Biol Med . 1997;22:1241–57.
16 Droge W, Breitkreutz R. Glutathione and immune function. Proc Nutr Soc . 2000;59:595–600.
17 De Rosa SC, Zaretsky MD, Dubs JG, et al. N-acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione in HIV infection. Eur J Clin Invest . 2000;30:915–29.
18 Witschi A, Junker E, Schranz C, Speck RF, Lauterburg BH. Supplementation of N-acetylcysteine fails to increase glutathione in lymphocytes and plasma of patients with AIDS. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses . 1995;11:141–3.
19 Droge W, Breitkreutz R. N-acetyl-cysteine in the therapy of HIV-positive patients. Curr Opin Clin Nutr MetabCare . 1999;2:493–8.
20 Amores-Sanchez MI, Medina MA. Glutamine, as a precursor of glutathione, and oxidative stress. Mol GenetMetab . 1999;67:100–5.
21 Wang ST, Chen HW, Sheen LY, Lii CK. Methionine and cysteine affect glutathione level, glutathione-related enzyme activities and the expression of glutathione S-transferase isozymes in rat hepatocytes. J Nutr . 1997;127:2135–41.
22 Vendemiale G, Altomare E, Trizio T, et al. Effects of oral S-adenosyl-L-methionine on hepatic glutathione in patients with liver disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989;24:407–15.
23 Molloy J, Martin JF, Baskerville PA, et al. S-nitrosoglutathione reduces the rate of embolization in humans. Circulation . 1998;98:1372–5.
24 Campbell KC, Larsen DL, Meech RP, Rybak LP, Hughes LF. Glutathione ester but not glutathione protects against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in a rat model. J Am Acad Audiol . 2003;14:124–33.
25 Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, et al. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann Oncol . 1997;8:569–73.
26 Cascinu S, Cordella L, Del Ferro E, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol . 1995;13:26–32.
27 Lenzi A, Picardo M, Gandini L, et al. Glutathione treatment of dyspermia: effect on the lipoperoxidation process. Hum Reprod . 1994;9:2044–50.
28 Lenzi A, Culasso F, Gandini L, et al. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial of glutathione therapy in male infertility. Hum Reprod . 1993;8:1657–62.
29 Lenzi A, Gandini L, Picardo M, Tramer F, Sandri G, Panfili E. Lipoperoxidation damage of spermatozoa polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): scavenger mechanisms and possible scavenger therapies. Front Biosci . 2000 Jan 1;5:E1-E15.
30 Lenzi A, Gandini L, Picardo M. A rationale for glutathione therapy. Hum Reprod . 1998;13:1419–22.
31 Lenzi A, Picardo M, Gandini L, Dondero F. Lipids of the sperm plasma membrane: from polyunsaturated fatty acids considered as markers of sperm function to possible scavenger therapy. Hum ReprodUpdate . 1996;2:246–56.
32 Bharath S, Hsu M, Kaur D, Rajagopalan S, Andersen JK. Glutathione, iron and Parkinson's disease. BiochemPharmacol . 2002;64:1037–48.
33 Sechi G, Deledda MG, Bua G, et al. Reduced intravenous glutathione in the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry . 1996;20:1159–70.
34 Richie JP Jr, Nichenametla S, et al. Randomized controlled trial of oral glutathione supplementation on body stores of glutathione. Eur J Nutr. 2014 May 5 [Epub ahead of print].
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 09/2014 -
- Update Date: 11/18/2014 -