This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2005.
Griffith’s 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.
Okeson, Jeffrey. Clinical Management of Temporomandibular Disorders and Occlusion. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby 2007.
Siccoli MM. Facial pain: a clinical differential diagnosis.
Lancet Neurol. 2006;5:257-267.
TMD/TMJ (temporomandibular disorders). American Dental Association website. Available at:
http://www.ada.org/. Accessed September 17, 2008.
TMJ. American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
website. Available at:
Accessed September 17, 2008.
TMJ (temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders). National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at:
http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/Topics/TMJ/. Updated August 2008. Accessed September 17, 2008.